Saturday, 4 January 2014

Introduction to the Cellular and Molecular Biology of Cancer

The first edition of this book, published in 1985 was a testimony to the dramatic molecular revolution that was taking place in biology and consequently in cancer research at that time. The book evolved from a series of introductory lectures developed to help new students and research fellows that came to work at the Imperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories in London to assimilate the rapidly evolving body of knowledge on cancer. These popular talks were designed to give the non-expert a background to related areas of research and were
given by experts from within the Imperial Cancer Research Fund, many of whom subsequently contributed chapters to the first edition of the book.

Twenty years later, the need for a comprehensive introduction to this broad field is even more apparent and the introductory lectures at what is now the Cancer Research UK London Research Institute continue and are as popular as ever. Today, laboratory science has begun to have a real impact on clinical medicine and it is of utmost importance that scientists have not only a broad view of laboratory cancer research but also a good understanding of the most up to date treatment options. Similarly, it is essential that clinicians treating the various types of neoplastic disease are aware of developments in basic science and can apply these appropriately. It is our view that only when determined attempts to bridge the gap between the laboratory and clinic are made by both clinicians and scientists that rapid translation will take place. Our objective has been to facilitate acquisition of basic information on all aspects of cancer research to facilitate this process.

Introduction to cancer biology

Introduction to Cancer Biology is a short primer on how cancers develop and grow. The aim of this book is to provide a gentle exploration of the fundamental concepts in a easy-to-understand format, using examples and key figures for illustration. It is written in a style to help the reader understand the six basic principles that inform our current understanding of cancer, at the molecular, cellular and physiological level. The text can be used either as a first step towards a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of cancer progression or it can be used as a quick revision guide. It would be suitable for anyone, with or without a background in biology.

Human cell culture: Volume II: Cancer Cell Lines Part 2

This series of volumes is in celebration of Human Cell Culture. Our ability to grow nearly every type of normal and diseased human cell in vitro and reconstruct tissues in 3 dimensions has provided the model systems on which much of our understanding of human cell biology and pathology is based. In future, human cell cultures will provide the tools for tissue engineering, gene therapy and the understanding of protein function. The chapters in these volumes are written by leading experts in each field to provide a resource for everyone who works with human cells in the laboratory.

The cancer cell lines available are derived, in most cases, from the more aggressive and advanced cancers. There are few cell lines derived from low grade organ-confined cancers. This gap can be filled with conditionally immortalized human cancer cell lines. We do not know why the success rate for establishing cell lines is so low for some types of cancer and so high for others.

The histopathology of the tumor of origin and the extent to which the derived cell line retains the differentiated features of that tumor are critical. The concept that a single cell line derived from a tumor at a particular site is representative of tumors at that site is naïve and misleading. It is essential that representative cell lines are selected for study, and it is hoped that the chapters in these volumes will help appropriate selections to be made. The data on the molecular genetics of cancer cell lines has been difficult to gather as it is widely distributed throughout the literature and in a stage of transition. We do not yet know the identity of many of the altered genes for each type of cancer, or what their individual roles are in the progression of the disease.

Cancer Vaccines

Cancer Vaccines: Challenges and Opportunities in Translation addresses a wide range of readership from basic scientists with dual interest in oncology and immunology, translational scientists, clinical researchers, industry scientists, physicians, and technicians involved in the research and development of new immunotherapies in cancer to business and project managers as well as regulatory experts within industry, academia, or government. The topic is approached from a different perspective by a panel of researchers in academia and industry involved with the development of major classes of cancer vaccines. The book outlines the gaps, challenges, and difficulties encountered in the past in conjunction with hurdles associated with translation of immunology research into clinic along with potential solutions that are currently implemented.

The excitement related to the concept of cancer vaccination fueled a broad and diverse technology base currently in early or late clinical development. This created an impression of enormous activity in the field; nevertheless, due to the complexity and specificity of each of these platforms’ mechanisms of action along with the heterogeneous nature of the disease target, this assessment may be an overestimation. In fact, if one takes a critical perspective at this field, the more realistic assessment is that none of these technologies is close to be mature to yield a robust pipeline of drugs that would have the capability of making a significant impact in the current standard of cancer care. Nevertheless, we believe that far from having a pessimistic view of the field, this is rather a realistic, and in consequence, a constructive stance.

In conclusion, in this postgenomic era, it is time to translate this vast scientific information and expand the healthcare benefits by adding vaccines to the large arsenal of cancer therapy in the quest of continuing to improve on the treatment and quality of life of all cancer patients.

Cancer Biology

There have been a significant number of advances in the field of cancer research since the first edition of Cancer Biology, which was published in 1981. These include advances in defining the genetic and phenotypic changes in cancer cells, the genetic susceptibility to cancer, molecular imaging to detect smaller and smaller tumors, the regulation of gene expression, and the ‘‘-omics’’ techniques of genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, among others. Yet, the goals of the fourth edition of Cancer Biology remain the same as those of the earlier editions, namely to provide a historical perspective on key developments in cancer research as well as the key advances of scientific knowledge that will lead to a greatly increased ability to prevent, diagnose, and treat cancer. Unfortunately, many aspects of the exciting breakthroughs in our knowledge of basic cancer biology have yet to be translated into standard care for patients. This will require an expanded ability of basic scientists and clinical researchers to learn to speak each other’s language and to collaborate on bringing basic research findings to the bedside. A goal for this book, which may seem overly ambitious if not a bit pompous, is to provide part of the lingua franca for these groups of experimentalists to better communicate. Now more than ever it has become clear that to achieve real breakthroughs in improving much needed diagnosis and treatment of cancer and other multifaceted chronic diseases, an interaction is required among researchers in many fields, including molecular biologists, chemists, computational scientists, biomedical engineers, epidemiologists, and health services researchers, as well as dedicated physicians, nurses, and other health care professionals.

Cancer and its management

Now in its sixth edition, this highly-regarded book is designed as an introductory text on the principles of diagnosis, staging and treatment of tumours. The new edition:
  •     Includes up-to-date information on the most recent techniques and therapies available
  •    Emphasises the importance of multidisciplinary teamwork in the care of cancer patients
  •   Highlights frequent dilemmas and difficulties encountered during cancer management
  •         Contains a brand-new two-colour design
As with previous editions, the first part of the book is devoted to the mechanisms of tumour development and cancer treatment. This is followed by a systematic account of the current management of individual major cancers. For each tumour there are details of the pathology, mode of spread, clinical presentation, staging and treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
This accessible and practical resource will be invaluable to trainees in oncology, palliative care and general medicine, as well as specialist nurses, general practitioners, medical students, and professions allied to medicine.

Ananthanarayan and paniker’s Textbook of Microbiology; Seventh edition

Ananthanarayan and Paniker's Textbook of Microbiology is the acknowledged classic textbook on the subject in India. This, the Seventh edition of the book, has a completely new full-colour layout, which is further enhanced by a large number of colour illustrations and photographs. In addition, a comprehensive section on the clinical aspects of microbiology aims to help students get to grips with the clinical applications of this field. This book also comes with a handy booklet, which contains an exhaustive list of questions, long, short and multiple choice, for each chapter to help students be better prepared for their examination. Special Features: • Chapter objectives and summaries • Full-colour, student-friendly layout • More bulletised text to improve ease of learning • Comprehensive section on clinical aspects • New and improved colour illustrative figures and photographs from laboratories and educational institutions all over India • Free booklet with exam-oriented questions. The Classic Textbook Has Been Relevant New Information And All Chapters Have Been Thoroughly Revised And Updated. It Contains Current Material On Hiv, Hepatitis Virus, Sars, Coronavirus, Bird Flud Virus And Many Of The New Agents Responsible For Human Infections. The Epidemological Patterns Have Been Redescribed And Updated.


Sunday, 20 October 2013

Viruses in food and water

Viruses can be highly infectious and are capable of causing widespread disease outbreaks. The significance of viral pathogens in food and waterborne illness is increasingly being recognised and viruses transferred by these routes are important areas of research. Viruses in food and water reviews the risks, surveillance and control of food and waterborne viral disease. 

Part one provides an introduction to food and environmental virology. Part two goes on to explore methods of detection, surveillance and risk assessment of viruses in food and water; it includes chapters on molecular detection of viruses in foods and food processing environments, quality control in the analytical laboratory, and quantitative risk assessment for food and waterborne viruses. Part three focuses on virus transmission routes and control of food and water contamination. It contains chapters on fresh produce, shellfish and viral presence, and control methods in waste water and sewage. Finally, part four highlights particular pathogens including norovirus, hepatitis A and emerging zoonotic viruses. 

Viruses in food and water is a standard reference book for microbiologists in academia, analytical labs and the food and water treatment industries, as well as environmental health professionals and researchers working on foodborne viruses.

Untranslated Gene Regions and Other Non-coding Elements

The completion of the human genome project in 2003 estimated the number of human genes to be between 20,000 and 25,000. It was assumed that humans, being highly complex organisms, would have many more genes than less complex organisms. However, Caenorhabditiselegans (roundworm) is estimated to have around 20,000 genes, and the number of mice genes is also in the same range as humans. This revelation meant that organism complexity could not be the result of a higher number of genes. Although there was no correlation between complexity and the number of genes, there was a clear correlation with the relative amount of non-coding sequences in the genome. In humans, only around 1.5 % of the genome is protein-coding, while the rest consists of introns, regulatory sequences and non-coding RNA. In the 10 years since the completion of the human genome project, research has rapidly progressed and we are now beginning to understand the importance of non-coding sequences. This book aims to summarise current knowledge about the non-coding regions of the eukaryotic genome and the roles they play in gene regulation and expression.